- Boonstra M.J., Tjeerdsma B.F., and Groeneveld H.A.C., 1998. Thermal modification of non-durable wood species. Part 1: The PLATO technology: thermal modification of wood. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 98-40123, 12 p.
- Boonstra M.J., Van Acker J., Kegel E., and Stevens M., 2007. Optimisation of a two-stage heat treatment process: durability aspects. Wood Sci. Tech. 41:31-57.
- CEN/TR 15119, 2005. Durability of wood and wood-based products. Estimation of emissions from preservative treated wood to the environment. Laboratory method, Brussels, European Committee for Standardization, 18 p.
- CEN/TS 15083-1, 2006. Durability of wood and wood-based products. Determination of the natural durability of solid wood against wood-destroying fungi, test methods. Part 1: Basidiomycetes, Brussels, European Committee for Standardization, 20 p.
- Cockcroft R., 1974. Evaluating the performance of wood preservatives against fungi. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 247, 7 p.
- Cowan J. and Banerjee S., 2005. Leaching studies and fungal resistance of potential new wood preservatives. For. Prod. J. 55(3): 66-70.
- Daphtoxkit F magna, 2001. Crustacean toxicity screening test for freshwater. Standard operational procedure, MicroBioTests Inc., Mariakerke, Belgium, 16 p.
- Donath S., Militz H., and Mai, C., 2006. Treatment of wood with aminofunctional silanes for protection against wood destroying fungi. Holzforschung 60: 210-216 [CrossRef].
- EN 84, 1996. Wood preservatives. Accelerated ageing of treated wood prior to biological testing. Leaching procedure, Brussels, European Committee for Standardization.
- EN 113, 1996. Wood preservatives. Test method for determining the protective effectiveness against wood destroying basidiomycetes. Determination of the toxic values, Brussels, European Committee for Standardization.
- EN 335-1, 2006. Durability of wood and derived materials. Definition of use classes. Part 1: General, Brussels, European Committee for Standardization.
- EN 350-2, 1994. Durability of wood and wood-based products. Natural durability of solid wood. Part 2: Guide to natural durability and treatability of selected wood species of importance in Europe, Brussels, European Committee for Standardization.
- EN 599, 1996. Durability of wood and wood-based products. Performance of preventive wood preservatives as determined by biological tests, Brussels, European Committee for Standardization.
- ENV 1250.2, 1994. Wood preservatives. Methods for measuring losses of active ingredients and other preservative ingredients from treated timber. Part 2: Laboratory method for obtaining samples for analysis to measure losses by leaching into water or synthetic sea water, Brussels, European Committee for Standardization.
- European Biocidal Products Directive, 1998. Official Journal of the European Communities L 123.
- Hakkou M., Petrissans M., Gerardin P., and Zoulalian A., 2006. Investigations of the reasons for fungal durability of heat-treated beech wood. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 91: 393-397 [CrossRef].
- Hamilton M.A., Russo R.C., and Thurston R.V., 1977. Trimmed Spearman-Karber method for estimating median lethal concentrations in toxicity bioassays. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11:714-718.
- Hill C., 2006. Wood Modification: Chemical, thermal and other processes, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., 239 p.
- Hillis W.E., 1987. Heartwood and tree exudates, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 268 p.
- Hingston J.A., Collins C.D., Murphy R.J., and Lester J.N., 2001. Leaching of chromated copper arsenate wood preservatives: a review. Environ. Pollut. 111: 53-66 [PubMed] [CrossRef].
- Humar M., Pohleven F., Amartey S., and Sentjurc M., 2004. Efficacy of CCA and Tanalith E treated pine fence to fungal decay after ten years in service. Wood Res. 49: 13-20.
- Kamdem D.P., Pizzi A., and Jermannaud A., 2002. Durability of heat-treated wood. Holz Roh-u Werkst. 60: 1-6 [CrossRef].
- Kamdem D.P., Pizzi A., and Triboulot M.C., 2000. Heat-treated timber: potentially toxic byproducts presence and extent of wood cell wall degradation. Holz Roh-u Werkst. 58: 253-257 [CrossRef].
- Lande S., Eikenes M., and Westin M., 2004a. Chemistry and ecotoxicology of furfurylated wood. Scand. J. For. Res. 19 (Suppl. 5): 14-21 [CrossRef].
- Lande S., Westin M., and Schneider M., 2004b. Properties of furfurylated wood. Scand. J. For. Res. 19 (Suppl. 5): 22-30 [CrossRef].
- Lincoln W.A., 1994. World woods in color, Linden Publishing Inc., Fresno, California, 320 p.
- Manusadzianas L., Balkelytè L., Sadauskas K., Blinova I., Põllumaa L., and Kahru A., 2003. Ecotoxicological study of Lithuanian and Estonian wastewaters: Selection of the biotests, and correspondence between toxicity and chemical-based indices. Aquat. Toxicol. 63: 27-41 [PubMed] [CrossRef].
- Mazela B., Polus-Ratajczak I., Hoffmann S.K., and Goslar J., 2005. Copper monoethanolamine complexes with quaternary ammonium compounds in wood preservation: Biological testing and EPR study. Wood Res. 50 (2): 1-17.
- Melcher E. and Wegen H.W., 1999. Biological and chemical investigations for the assessment of the environmental impact of wood preservative components, The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 99-50127, 17 p.
- NTR No. 73, 2005. Wood preservatives approved by the Nordic Wood Preservation Council, Oslo, Norway, Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC).
- OECD, 1984. Guideline for testing of chemicals. Daphnia sp., acute immobilisation and reproduction test, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
- Tjeerdsma B.F., Boonstra M., and Militz H., 1998. Thermal modification of non-durable wood species. Part 2: Improved wood properties of thermally treated wood. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 98-40124, 10 p.
- Tjeerdsma B.F. and Militz H., 2005. Chemical changes in hydrothermal treated wood: FTIR analysis of combined hydrothermal and dry heat-treated wood. Holz Roh-u Werkst. 63: 102-111 [CrossRef].
- Townsend T., Dubey B., Tolaymat T., and Solo-Gabriele H., 2005. Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood. J. Environ. Manage. 75: 105-113 [PubMed] [CrossRef].
- United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2006. Trimmed Spearman-Karber programme.
- Van Acker J., 2003. Assessing performance potential of modified wood focussing on dimensional stability and biological durability. In: Van Acker J. and Hill C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the First European Conference on Wood Modification, Ghent, pp. 153-168.
- Van Acker J., Militz H., and Stevens, M., 1999. The significance of laboratory accelerated testing methods determining the natural durability of wood. Holzforschung 53: 449-458 [CrossRef].
- Van Eetvelde G., De Geyter S., Marchal P., and Stevens M., 1998. Aquatic toxicity research of structural materials. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 98-50114, 10 p.
- Van Eetvelde G., Marchal P., and Stevens M., 1997. Qualifying ecotoxicity research on tropical hardwood leachates. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 97-50096, 8 p.
- Waldron L., Ung Y.T., and Cooper P.A., 2003. Leaching of inorganic wood preservatives. Investigating the relationship between leachability, dissociation characteristics and long-term leaching potential. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 03-50199, 12 p.
- Wegen H.W., Platen A., Van Eetvelde G., and Stevens M., 1998. An appraisal of methods for environmental testing of leachates from salt-treated wood (2). The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 98-50110, 18 p.
- Willeitner H. and Peek R.D., 1998. How to determine what is a realistic emission from treated wood. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 98-50105, 18 p.
Ann. For. Sci.
Volume 65, Number 5, July-August 2008
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Published online||04 July 2008|
References of Ann. For. Sci. 65 (2008) 504