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Ann. For. Sci.
Volume 56, Number 6, 1999
Page(s) 479 - 484
Ann. For. Sci. 56 (1999) 479-484
DOI: 10.1051/forest:19990604

Anatomy and chemical composition of Pinus pinea L. bark

Elsa Nunesa, Teresa Quilhób and Helena Pereiraa

a  Centro de Estudos Florestais, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1399 Lisboa Codex, Portugal
b  Centro de Estudos de Tecnologia Florestal, Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, 1399 Lisboa Codex, Portugal

Abstract - The secondary phloem of Pinus pinea L. bark has sieve cells and axial and radial parenchyma, but no fibres. Resin ducts are present in fusiform rays. Styloid crystals, starch granules and tannins occur inside sieve and parenchyma cells. The rhytidome of P. pinea bark has a variable number of periderms forming scale-type discontinuous layers over expanded parenchyma cells. The phellem comprises two to four layers of thick-walled cells and the phelloderm a layer of two or three thin-walled cells with inclusions and sometimes a layer of expanded cells. Ash content of P. pinea bark is low and the pH is slightly acidic. Total extractives amount to 19.1 % and tannins to 7.2 % of o.d. weight. Content of lignin and unhydrolysable phenolic acids is 37.5 % and of polysaccharides 36.8 %, with the following monosaccharide composition: glucose 44.6 %, mannose 18.2 %, xylose 20.7 %, galactose 7.6 % and arabinose 8.9 %. (© Inra/Elsevier, Paris.)

Résumé - Anatomie et composition chimique de l'écorce de Pinus pinea L. Le phloème secondaire de Pinus pinea L. contient des cellules criblées, du parenchyme axial et radial mais pas de fibres. Les canaux résinifères apparaissent dans les rayons fusiformes. Des cristaux styloïdes, des granules d'amidon et des tanins ont été observés dans les cellules criblées et le parenchyme. Le rhytidome renferme un nombre variable de péridermes qui forment des couches discontinues en écailles sur des cellules de parenchyme élargies. Le phellème comprend de deux à quatre couches de cellules à paroi épaisse et le phelloderme une couche de deux à trois cellules à paroi mince avec inclusions et, parfois, une couche de cellules élargies. La teneur minérale de l'écorce de Pinus pinea est faible et le pH légèrement acide. Les extractibles correspondent à 19,1 % et les tanins à 7,2 % (masse anhydre). La teneur en lignine et en acides phénoliques non hydrolysables est de 37,5 %, tandis que celle des polysaccharides est de 36,8 % avec la composition suivante: glucose 44,6 %, mannose 18,2 %, xylose 20,7 %, galactose 7,6 % et arabinose 8,9 %. (© Inra/Elsevier, Paris.)

Key words: Pinus pinea L. / bark / anatomy / chemical composition

Mots clés : Pinus pinea L. / écorce / anatomie / composition chimique

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