Free access
Ann. For. Sci.
Volume 63, Number 7, October-November 2006
Page(s) 801 - 808
Published online 18 October 2006
Ann. For. Sci. 63 (2006) 801-808
DOI: 10.1051/forest:2006063

Fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda in Poland and assessment of their virulence using Scots pine seedlings

Robert Jankowiak

Agriculture University of Cracow, Department of Forest Pathology, Al. 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Cracow, Poland

(Received 6 March 2006; accepted 21 June 2006; published online 18 October 2006)

Abstract - The species composition and virulence of fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda were studied at eight locations in Poland. The fungi were isolated from phloem and sapwood samples taken from insect galleries and then identified. The virulence of the most common ophiostomatoid species was evaluated through inoculations using two-year-old Scots pine seedlings. A great diversity of fungi were found associated with T. piniperda, including 4 837 cultures and 67 species. The most important groups of fungi were the ophiostomatoids and moulds, including mainly Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor species. Among ophiostomatoid fungi, Ophiostoma minus and O. piceae dominated, with a frequency of occurrence of 32.4 and 11.5% of inspected galleries, respectively. Occasionally isolated species included Leptographium lundbergii, L. procerum, L. wingfieldii, Graphium pycnocephalum and Graphium sp. `W'. In general, the frequency of the ophiostomatoid species was highly variable among locations. Leptographium wingfieldii and O. minus, were the only species capable of killing whole plants and penetrated deeper into the sapwood than other species (87-100% mortality during the 11 week incubation period). Other fungi, including O. piliferum, O. piceae and L. procerum, were considerably less virulent.

Résumé - Champignons associés à Tomicus piniperda en Pologne et appréciation de leur virulence pour des plants de pin sylvestre. La composition spécifique et la virulence des champignons associés à Tomicus piniperda ont été étudiées dans huit localités polonaises. Les champignons ont été isolés d'échantillons de liber et d'aubier récoltés à partir des galeries des insectes, puis identifiés. La virulence de l'espèce d'Ophiostoma la plus commune a été évaluée en utilisant des plants de Pin sylvestre de deux ans. Une grande diversité de champignons associés à T. piniperda a été récoltée, représentant 4 837 cultures et 67 espèces. Les groupes les plus importants sont les Ophiostomatoïdes et les moisissures, dont principalement des espèces de Penicillium, Trichoderma et Mucor. Parmi les Ophiostomatoïdes, Ophiostoma minus et O. piceae dominent, avec une constance respective de 32.4 % et 11.5 % dans les galeries examinées. Des espèces ont été isolées occasionnellement telles que Leptographium lundbergii, L. procerum, L. wingfieldii, Graphium pycnocephalum and Graphium sp. `W'. En général, la fréquence des espèces d'Ophiostomatoïdes a été très variable selon les localités. Leptographium wingfieldii et O. minus furent les seules espèces capables de tuer des plantes entières et ont pénétré plus profondément dans l'aubier que les autres espèces (mortalité de 87-100 % en 11 semaines d'incubation). Les autres champignons, dont O. piliferum, O. piceae and L. procerum, ont été considérablement moins virulents.

Key words: associated fungi / Leptographium / Ophiostoma / Pinus sylvestris / Tomicus piniperda / virulence

Mots clés : champignons associés / Leptographium / Ophiostoma / Pinus sylvestris / Tomicus piniperda / virulence

Corresponding author:

© INRA, EDP Sciences 2006

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