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Figure 1

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Schematic diagrams of the Dayau-type (A) and EMS-type (B) sap flow gauges and positions of the measured temperatures and heat fluxes (Qsap, heat-flux convection by the sap; Qup and Qdown, up-stream and down-stream conductive heat losses, respectively; Qlat, lateral conductive heat flux; Qsto, stored heat; dTup and dTdown, up and down temperature differences; Tcent, temperature at the centre of the heated segment of the stem). All temperatures were measured using thermocouples inserted into the xylems and heating elements were wrapped around the stems in both systems.

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