Examples of the development of un-thinned (solid line) and a thinned stand (dashed line) simulated with a forest growth model for un-thinned stands (Franklin et al., 2009) combined with the thinning scenario presented here, including the effect of competition un-related mortality (Eq. (7)). Thinnings that reduce closure (c) to c = 0.6 are triggered when c > 0.85. The stand is Scots pine planted at 3000 trees per ha. Net increment (C) is gross biomass growth – mortality.