Free Access
Ann. For. Sci.
Volume 63, Number 1, January-February 2006
Page(s) 43 - 53
Published online 28 January 2006
References of Ann. For. Sci. 63 43-53
  1. Ackerly D.D., Bazzaz F.A., Seedling crown orientation and interception of diffuse radiation in tropical forest gaps, Ecology 76 (1995) 1134-1146.
  2. Anderson M.C., Studies of the woodland light climate. II. Seasonal variation in the light climate, J. Ecol. 52 (1964) 643-663.
  3. Baldocchi D.D., Hutchison B.A., Matt D.R., McMillen R.T., Seasonal variations in the radiation regime within an oak-hickory forest, Agric. For. Meteorol. 33 (1984) 177-191 [CrossRef].
  4. Black T.A., Chen J.M., Lee X., Sagar R.M., Characteristics of shortwave and longwave irradiances under a Douglas-fir forest stand, Can. J. For. Res. 21 (1991) 1020-1028.
  5. Brunger A.P., Hooper F.C., Anisotropic sky radiance model based on narrow field of view measurements of shortwave radiance, Solar Energy 51 (1993) 53-64 [CrossRef].
  6. Canham C.D., Growth and canopy architecture of shade-tolerant trees: response to canopy gaps, Ecology 69 (1988) 786-795.
  7. Canham C.D., Coates K.D., Bartemucci P., Quaglia S., Measurement and modeling of spatially explicit variation in light transmission through interior cedar-hemlock forests of British Columbia, Can. J. For. Res. 29 (1999) 1775-1783 [CrossRef].
  8. Canham C.D., Denslow J.S., Platt W.J., Runkle J.R., Spies T.A., White P.S., Light regimes beneath closed canopies and tree-fall gaps in temperate and tropical forests, Can. J. For. Res. 20 (1990) 620-631.
  9. Canham C.D., Finzi A.C., Pacala S.W., Burbank D.H., Causes and consequences of resource heterogeneity in forests: interspecific variation in light transmission by canopy trees, Can. J. For. Res. 24 (1994) 337-349.
  10. Chazdon R.L., Field C.B., Photographic estimation of photosynthetically active radiation: evaluation of a computerized technique, Oecologia 73 (1987) 525-532 [CrossRef].
  11. Chen J.M., Canopy architecture and remote sensing of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by boreal conifer forests, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 34 (1996) 1353-1367 [CrossRef].
  12. Clarck D.A., Clarck D.B., Life history diversity of canopy and emergent trees in a neotropical rain forest, Ecol. Monogr. 62 (1992) 315-344.
  13. Clearwater M.J., Gould K.S., Leaf orientation and light interception by juvenile Pseudopanax crassifolius (Cunn.) C. Koch in a partially shaded forest environment, Oecologia 104 (1995) 363-371 [CrossRef].
  14. Easter M.J., Spies T.A., Using hemispherical photography for estimating photosynthetic photon flux density under canopies and in gaps in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, Can. J. For. Res. 24 (1994) 2050-2058.
  15. Endler J.A., The color of light in forests and its implications, Ecol. Monogr. 63 (1993) 1-27.
  16. Fielder P., Comeau P., Construction and testing of an inexpensive PAR sensor, Res. Br., Min. For., Victoria, BC. Work.-Pap. 53/2000, 2000.
  17. Frazer G.W., Canham C.D., Lertzman K.P., Gap Light Analyzer (GLA): Imaging software to extract canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from true-colour fisheye photographs, users manual and program documentation, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, and the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York, 1999.
  18. Gendron F., Messier C., Comeau P.G., Temporal variations in the understorey photosynthetic photon flux density of a deciduous stand: the effects of canopy development, solar elevation, and sky conditions, Agric. For. Meteorol. 106 (2001) 23-40 [CrossRef].
  19. Grace J., The directional distribution of light in natural and controlled environment conditions, J. Appl. Ecol. 8 (1971) 155-164.
  20. Grant R.H., Ultraviolet and photosynthetically active bands: plane surface irradiance at corn canopy base, Agron. J. 83 (1991) 391-396.
  21. Grant R.H., Heisler G.M., Gao W., Photosynthetically-active radiation: sky radiance distributions under clear and overcast conditions, Agric. For. Meteorol. 82 (1996) 267-292 [CrossRef].
  22. Hutchison B.A., Matt D.R., McMillen R.T., Effects of sky brightness distribution upon penetration of diffuse radiation through canopy gaps in a deciduous forest, Agric. Meteorol. 22 (1980) 137-147 [CrossRef].
  23. Kucharik C.J., Norman J.M., Gower S.T., Measurements of leaf orientation, light distribution and sunlit leaf area in a boreal aspen forest, Agric. For. Meteorol. 91 (1998) 127-148 [CrossRef].
  24. Kuuluvainen T., Tree architectures adapted to efficient light utilization: is there a basis for latitudinal gradients? Oikos 65 (1992) 275-284.
  25. Lieffers V.J., Messier C., Stadt K.J., Gendron F., Comeau P.G., Predicting and managing light in the understory of boreal forests, Can. J. For. Res. 29 (1999) 796-811 [CrossRef].
  26. Messier C., Parent S., Bergeron Y., Effects of overstory and understory vegetation on the understory light environment in mixed boreal forests, J. Veg. Sci. 9 (1998) 511-520.
  27. Monteith J.L., Unsworth M.H., Radiation environment, in: Principles of environmental physics, 2nd ed., Edward Arnold, London, 1990, pp. 36-57.
  28. Moon P., Spencer D.E., Illumination from a non-uniform sky, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 37 (1942) 707-726.
  29. O'Connell B.M., Kelty M.J., Crown architecture of understory and open-grown white pine (Pinus strobus L.) saplings, Tree Physiol. 14 (1994) 89-102 [PubMed].
  30. Reifsnyder W.E., Furnival G.M., Horowitz J.L., Spatial and temporal distribution of solar radiation beneath forest canopies, Agric. Meteorol. 9 (1971) 21-37.
  31. Rosen M.A., Hooper F.C., Brunger A.P., The characterization and modelling of the diffuse radiance distribution under partly cloudy skies, Solar Energy 43 (1989) 281-290 [CrossRef].
  32. Ross J., The radiation regime and architecture of plant stands, Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, 1981.
  33. Ross M.S., Flanagan L.B., La Roi G.H., Seasonal and successional changes in light quality and quantity in the understory of boreal forest ecosystems, Can. J. Bot. 64 (1986) 2792-2799.
  34. Rouvinen S., Kuuluvainen T., Structure and asymmetry of tree crowns in relation to local competition in a natural mature Scots pine forest, Can. J. For. Res. 27 (1997) 890-902 [CrossRef].
  35. Scherrer B., Biostatistique, Gaëtan Morin, Canada, 1984.
  36. Sokal R.R., Rohlf F.J., Biometry. The principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 2nd ed., W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1981.
  37. Spies T.A., Franklin J.F., Klopsch M., Canopy gaps in Douglas-fir forests of the Cascade Mountains, Can. J. For. Res. 20 (1990) 649-658.
  38. Sprugel D.G., The relationship of evergreenness, crown architecture, and leaf size, Am. Nat. 133 (1989) 465-479 [CrossRef].
  39. Stenberg P., Simulations of the effects of shoot structure and orientation on vertical gradients in intercepted light by conifer canopies, Tree Physiol. 16 (1996) 99-108 [PubMed].
  40. Steven M.D., Standard distributions of clear sky radiance, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 103 (1977) 457-465 [CrossRef].
  41. Steven M.D., Unsworth M.H., The angular distribution and interception of diffuse solar radiation below overcast skies, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 106 (1980) 57-61 [CrossRef].
  42. Stone J.N., MacKinnon A.P.J.V., Lertzman K.P., Coarse woody debris decomposition documented over 65 years on southern Vancouver Island, Can. J. For. Res. 28 (1998) 788-793 [CrossRef].
  43. Takenaka A., Analysis of light transmissivity of forest canopies with a telephoto method, Agric. For. Meteorol. 40 (1987) 359-369 [CrossRef].
  44. Vales D.J., Bunnell F.L., Relationships between transmission of solar radiation and coniferous forest stand characteristics, Agric. For. Meteorol. 43 (1988) 201-223 [CrossRef].