Two balanced breeding strategies are compared. A sub-line initiated by four founders is shown. The connected lines show the pairs mated. To the left “parent-balance”strategy with within-family selection only, where two families are created and after testing the two best individuals in each are mated. To the right “grandparent-balance”strategy with both within- and among-family selection, where four but smaller families are created and after testing the best two individuals in each of the two best families are mated.