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Appendix 1

Estimates of least-squares means (LSM), population-level inbreeding depression (ID) and population-level outcrossing rate (t), based on progeny data from three crossing designs - selfing (SELF), open-pollination (OP) and outcrossing with Polymix (POL). The traits evaluated at different ages were survival (SURV), basal area per hectare (BAH) and breast-height diameter (DBH). The significance probabilities pertaining to the tests of differences between pairs of LSM estimates are presented for each trait and age (***, P ≤ 0.001; **, P ≤ 0.01; *, P ≤ 0.05; ns, P > 0.05).

At a given age, the first ID estimate is based on the comparison of SELF versus POL (IDself), and the subsequent ID estimate is based on the comparison of OP versus POL (IDop).