Free Access
Ann. For. Sci.
Volume 66, Number 8, December 2009
Article Number 812
Number of page(s) 9
Published online 25 November 2009
  • Allen G.A. and Antos J.A., 1998. Relative reproductive effort in males and females of the dioecious shrub Oemleria cerasiformis. Oecologia 76: 111–118
  • Allen G.A. and Antos J.A., 1993. Sex ratio variation in the dioecious shrub Oemleria cerasiformis. Am. Nat. 141: 537–553 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Antos J.A. and Allen G.A., 1999. Patterns of reproductive effort in male and female shrubs of Oemleria cerasiformis: A 6-year study. J. Ecol. 87: 77–84 [CrossRef]
  • Armstrong J.E. and Irvine A.K., 1989. Flowering, sex ratios, pollen-ovule ratios, fruit set, and reproductive effort of a dioecious tress, Myristica insipida (Myristicaceae), in two different rain forest communities. Am. J. Bot. 76: 74–85 [CrossRef]
  • Barrett S.C.H. and Helenurm K., 1981. Floral sex ratios and lifehistory in Aralia nudicaulis (Araliaceae). Evolution 35: 752–62 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Besag J.E. and Diggle P.J., 1977. Simple Monte Carlo tests for spatial pattern. Appl. Stat. 26: 327–333 [CrossRef]
  • Bonhomme R. and Chartier P., 1972. The interpretation and automatic measurement of hemispherical photographs to obtain sunlit folige area and gap frequency. Isr. J. Agric. Res. 22: 53–61
  • Bullock S.H., 1992. Effects of sex, size and substrate on growth and mortality of trees in tropical wet forest. Oecologia 9l: 52–55
  • Callaway R.M., DeLucia E.H., Moore D., Nowak R. and Schlesinger W.H., 1996. Competition and facilitation: contrasting effects of Artemisia tridentata on desert vs. montane pines. Ecology 77: 2130–2141 [CrossRef]
  • China Soil Council, 1999. Soil agricultural chemical analysis procedure, Chinese Agricultural Science Press, Beijing.
  • Cipollini M.L. and Stiles E.W., 1991. Costs of reproduction in Nyssa sylvatica: sexual dimorphism in reproductive frequency and nutrient flux. Oecologia 86: 585–593 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Cipollini M.L. and Whigham D.F., 1994. Sexual dimorphism and cost of reproduction in the dioecious shrub Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae). Am. J. Bot. 81: 65–75 [CrossRef]
  • Collet C., Guehl J.M., Frochot H. and Ferhi A., 1996. Effect of two grasses differing in their growth dynamics on the water relations and the growth of Quercus petraea seedlings. Can. J. Bot. 74: 1562–1571 [CrossRef]
  • Cornelissen T. and Stiling P., 2005. Sex-biased herbivory: a meta-analysis of the effects of gender on plant-herbivore interactions. Oikos 111: 488–500 [CrossRef]
  • Cox P.A., 1981. Niche partitioning between sexes of dioecious plants. Am. Nat. 117: 295–307 [CrossRef]
  • Davidson C.G. and Remphrey W.R., 1990. An analysis of architectural parameters of male and female Fraxinus pennsylvanica in relation to crown shape and crown location. Can. J. Bot. 68: 2035–2043
  • Dawson T.E. and Ehleringer J.R., 1993. Gender-specific physiology, carbon isotope discrimination, and habitat distribution in box elder, Acer negundo. Ecology 74: 798–815 [CrossRef]
  • Delph L.F., 1999. Sexual dimorphism in live history. In: Geber M.A., Dawson T.E., Delph L.F. (Eds.), Gender and sexual dimorphism in flowering plants, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 149–173
  • Diggle P.J., 1983. Statistical analysis of spatial point patterns, Academic Press, London
  • Duncan R., 1989. An evaluation of errors in tree age estimates based on increment cores in kahikatea (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides). N. Z. Nat. Sci. 16: 31–37
  • Garcia M.B. and Antor R.J., 1995. Sex ratio and sexual dimorphism in the dioecious Borderea pyrenaica (Dioscoreaceae). Oecologia 101: 59–67 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gauquelin T., Bertaudière-Montès V., Badri W. and Montès N., 2002. Sex ratio and sexual dimorphism in mountain dioecious thuriferous juniper (Juniperus thurifera L., Cupressaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 138: 237–244 [CrossRef]
  • Gehring J.L. and Linhart Y.B., 1993. Sexual dimorphisms and response to low resources in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 154: 152–162 [CrossRef]
  • Goreaud F. and Pélissier R., 2003. Avoiding misinterpretation of biotic interaction with the intertype K12-function: population independence vs. random labeling hypotheses. J. Veg. Sci. 14: 681–692 [CrossRef]
  • Grant M.C. and Mitton J.B., 1979. Elevational gradients in adult sex ratios and sexual differentiation in vegetative growth rates in Populus tremuloides Michx. Evolution 33: 914–918 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gross K.L. and Soule J.D., 1981. Differences in biomass allocation to reproductive and vegetative structures of male and females plants of a dioecious, perennial herb, Silene alba (Miller) Krause. Am. J. Bot. 68: 801–807 [CrossRef]
  • Guillon J.M. and Fievet D., 2003. Environmental sex determination in response to light and biased sex ratios in Equisetum gametophytes. J. Ecol. 91: 49–57 [CrossRef]
  • He F. and Duncan R.P., 2000. Density-dependent effects on tree survival in an old-growth Douglas fir forest. J. Ecol. 88: 676–688 [CrossRef]
  • Herrera C.M., 1988. Plant size, spacing patterns, and host plant selection in Osyris quadripartita, a hemiparasitic dioecious shrub. J. Ecol. 76: 995–1006 [CrossRef]
  • Hill P.W., H, ley L.L. and Raven J.A., 1996. Juniperus communis L. spp. communis at Balnaguard, Scotland: foliar carbon discrimination (13C and 15-N natural abundance (15N suggest gender-linked differences in water and N use. Bot. J. Scotland 48: 209–224 [CrossRef]
  • Hoffmann A.J. and Alliende M.C., 1984. Interactions in the patterns of vegetative growth and reproduction in woody dioecious plants. Oecologia 61: 109–114 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Holmes R.L., 1983. Computer-assisted quality control in tree-ring dating and measurement. Tree-Ring Bull. 44: 69–75
  • Houle G. and Duchesne M., 1999. The spatial pattern of a Juniperus communis var. depressa population on a continental dune in subarctic Québec. Canada. Can. J. For. Res. 29: 446–450
  • Houssard C., Thompson J.D. and Escarre J., 1994. Do sex related differences in response to environmental variation influence the sex ratio in the dioecious Rumex acetosella. Oikos 70: 80–90 [CrossRef]
  • Jing S.W. and Coley P.D., 1990. Dioecy and herbivory: the effect of growth rate on plant defense in Acer negundo. Oikos 58: 369–377 [CrossRef]
  • Kohorn L.U., 1994. Shoot morphology and reproduction in Jojoba: advantages of sexual dimorphism. Ecology 75: 2384–2394 [CrossRef]
  • Korpelainen H., 1992. Patterns of resource allocation in male and female plants of Rumex acetosa and R. acetosella. Oecologia 89: 133–139 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Krischik V.A. and Denno R.F., 1990. Patterns of growth, reproduction, defense, and herbivory in the dioecious shrub Baccharis halimifolia (Compositae). Oecologia 83: 182–190 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • LeeW.K. and Gadow K.V., 1997. Iterative Bestimmung der Konkurrenzbäume in Pinus densiflora Beständen. Allg. Forst-Jagdztg: 168(3/4): 41–44.
  • LeeW.K., GadowK.V., Chung D.J.,LeeJ.L. and ShinM.Y. 2003. DBH growth model for Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis mixed forests in central Korea. Ecol. Mod. 176: 187–200. [CrossRef]
  • Lloyd D.G. and Webb C.J., 1977. Secondary sex characteristics in plants. Bot. Rev. 43: 177–216 [CrossRef]
  • Lovett Doust J., O’ Brien G. and Lovett Doust L., 1987. Effects of density on the secondary sex characteristics and sex ratio in Silene alba (Caryophyllaceae). Am. J. Bot. 74: 40–46 [CrossRef]
  • Lovett-Doust J. and Lovett-Doust L., 1988. Modules of production and reproduction in a dioecious clonal shrub, Rhus typhina. Ecology 69: 741–750 [CrossRef]
  • Luken J.O., 1987. Interactions between seed production and vegetative growth in staghorn sumac, Rhus typhina. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 114: 247–251 [CrossRef]
  • Marion C. and Houle G., 1996. No differential consequences of reproduction according to sex in Juniperus communis var. depressa (Cupressaceae). Am. J. Bot. 83: 480–488 [CrossRef]
  • Meagher T.R. and Antonovics J., 1982. The population biology of Chamaelirium luteum, a dioecious member of the lily family: life history studies. Ecology 63: 1690–1700 [CrossRef]
  • Nanami S., Kawaguchi H. and Yamakura T., 2005. Sex ratio and gender-dependent neighboring effects in Podocarpus nagi, a dioecious tree. Plant Ecol. 177: 209–222 [CrossRef]
  • Nicotra A.B., 1999. Sexually dimorphic growth in the dioecious tropical shrub, Siparuna grandiflora. Funct. Ecol. 13: 322–331 [CrossRef]
  • Obeso J.R., Alvarez-Santullano M. and Retuerto R., 1998. Sex ratios, size distributions, and sexual dimorphism in the dioecious tree Ilex aquifolium (Aquifoliaceae). Am. J. Bot. 85: 1602–1608 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Obeso J.R., 1997. Costs of reproduction in Ilex aquifolium: effects at tree, 1-year shoot and leaf levels. J. Ecol. 85: 159–166 [CrossRef]
  • Obeso J.R., 2002. The costs of reproduction in plants. New Phytol. 155: 321–348 [CrossRef]
  • Onyekwelu S.S. and Harper J.L., 1979. Sex ratio and niche differentiation in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Nature 282: 609–611 [CrossRef]
  • Peterson C.J. and Squiers E.R., 1995. Competition and succession in an aspen–white-pine forest. J. Ecol. 83: 449–457 [CrossRef]
  • Pickering C.M. and Arthur J.M., 2003. Patterns of resource allocation in the dioecious alpine herb Aciphylla simplicifolia (Apiaceae). Austral Ecol. 28: 566–574 [CrossRef]
  • Pickering C.M., 2000. Sex-specific differences in floral display and resource allocation in Australian alpine dioecious Aciphylla glacialis (Apiaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 48: 81–91 [CrossRef]
  • Popp J.W. and Reinartz J.A., 1988. Sexual dimorphism in biomass allocation and clonal growth of Xanthoxylum americamum. Am. J. Bot. 75: 1732–1741 [CrossRef]
  • Putwain P.D. and Harper J.L., 1972. Studies in the dynamics of plant populations. V. Mechanisms governing the sex ratios in Rumex acetosa and R. acetosella. J. Ecol. 60: 113–129 [CrossRef]
  • Ramadan A., El-Keblawy A., Shaltout K. and Lovett Doust J., 1994. Sexual polymorphism, growth, and reproductive effort in Egyptian Thymelaea hirsute (Thymelaeaceae). Am. J. Bot. 81: 847–857 [CrossRef]
  • Ramp P.F. and Stephenson S.N., 1988. Gender dimorphism in growth and mass partitioning by box-elder (Acer negundo L.). Am. Midl. Nat. 119: 420–430 [CrossRef]
  • Retuerto R., Lema B.F., Roiloa S.R. and Obeso J.R., 2000. Gender, light and water effects in carbon isotope discrimination, and growth rates in the dioecious tree Ilex aquifolium. Funct. Ecol. 14: 529–537 [CrossRef]
  • Ripley B.D., 1981. Spatial statistics., John Wiley, New York
  • Rocheleau A.F. and Houle G., 2001. Different cost of reproduction for the males and females of the rare dioecious shrub Corema conradii (Empetraceae). Am. J. Bot. 88: 659–666 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Sakai A. and Burris T., 1985. Growth in male and female aspen clones: a 25-year longitudinal study. Ecology 66: 1921–1927 [CrossRef]
  • Sakai A.K. and Sharik T.L., 1988. Clonal growth of male and female Bigtooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata). Ecology 69: 2031–2033 [CrossRef]
  • Tryon E.H. and Pease R.W., 1953. Shading effects of natural canopies on holly characteristics. Castanea 18: 70–83
  • Upton G. and Fingleton B., 1985. Spatial data analysis by example. Vol. 1. point pattern and quantitative data., John Wiley, New York
  • Vasiliauskas S.A. and Aarssen L.W., 1992. Sex ratio and neighbor effects in monospecific stands of Juniperus virginiana. Ecology 73: 622–632 [CrossRef]
  • Willson M.F., 1986. On the cost of reproduction in plants: Acer negundo. Am. Midl. Nat. 115: 204–207 [CrossRef]
  • Wright S., 1920. The relative importance of heredity and environment in determining the piebald pattern of guinea pigs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 6: 320–332 [CrossRef]
  • Wright S., 1934. The method of path coefficients. Ann. Math. Stat. 5: 161–215 [CrossRef]
  • Zhan Y.G., Yin L.H., Liu X.M. and Zhang G.Q., 2005. Development of macrospore and microspore, male and female gametophytes of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. and its phylogenetic significance. Int. J. Automation Comp. 27: 42–47