Free Access
Ann. For. Sci.
Volume 67, Number 1, January-February 2010
Article Number 102
Number of page(s) 11
Published online 24 December 2009
  • Aber J.D. and Melillo J.M., 1980. Litter decomposition – measuring relative contributions of organic matter and nitrogen to forest soils. Can. J. Bot./Rev. Can. Bot. 58: 416–421
  • Aerts R. and deCaluwe H., 1997. Nutritional and plant-mediated controls on leaf litter decomposition of Carex species. Ecology 78: 244–260
  • Apigian K.O., Dahlsten D.L. and Stephens S.L., 2006. Fire and fire surrogate treatment effects on leaf litter arthropods in a western Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 221: 110–122
  • Bartos D.L., 2000. Landscape dynamics of aspen and conifer forests. In: Shepperd W.D., Binkley D., Bartos D.L., Stohlgren T.J., Eskew L.G. (Eds.), Sustaining aspen in western landscapes: Symposium Proceedings, Grand Junction, CO, pp. 5–14.
  • Bormann F.H. and Likens G.E., 1979. Pattern and process in a forested ecosystem, Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Boyle S.I., Hart S.C., Kaye J.P. and Waldrop M.P., 2005. Restoration and canopy type influence soil microflora in a ponderosa pine forest. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 69: 1627–1638 [CrossRef]
  • Carpenter A.T., West C.M. and Murray W., 1998. Management plan for the Catamount Ranch Open Space, Teller County, CO, 1998–2002 Teller County Division of Parks, Denver, CO, pp. 1–50.
  • Chacon P. and Armesto J.J., 2006. Do carbon-based defenses reduce foliar damage? Habitat-related effects on tree seedling performance in a temperate rainforest of Chiloe Island, Chile Oecologia 146: 555–565. [CrossRef]
  • Colorado Division of Forestry, 2005. The 2005 Report on the health of Colorado’s forests, Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, Denver, CO, pp. 1–27.
  • Colorado Forest Restoration Institute, 2006. What’s Happening in Colorado’s aspen forests? Gradual, long-term changes and recent widespread death of aspen trees. In: Binkley D. (Ed.), Colorado Forest Restoration Institute, Fort Collins, CO, pp. 1–4.
  • Connaugh C., 1970. Revolt against clearcutting. J. For. 68: 264.
  • Converse S.J., White G.C., Farris K.L. and Zack S., 2006. Small mammals and forest fuel reduction: national-scale responses to fire and fire surrogates. Ecol. Appl. 16: 1717–1729 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Covelo F. and Gallardo A., 2001. Temporal variation in total leaf phenolics concentration of Quercus robur in forested and harvested stands in northwestern Spain. Can. J. Bot./Rev. Can. Bot. 79: 1262–1269 [CrossRef]
  • Covington W.W., Fule P.Z., Moore M.M., Hart S.C., Kolb T.E., Mast J.N., Sackett S.S. and Wagner M.R., 1997. Restoring ecosystem health in ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest. J. For. 95: 23–29
  • Dannenmann M., Gasche R., Ledebuhr A. and Papen H., 2006. Effects of forest management on soil N cycling in beech forests stocking on calcareous soils. Plant Soil 287: 279–300 [CrossRef]
  • Dannenmann M., Gasche R. and Papen H., 2007. Nitrogen turnover and N2O production in the forest floor of beech stands as influenced by forest management. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 170: 134–144 [CrossRef]
  • Denslow J.S., Ellison A.M. and Sanford R.E., 1998. Treefall gap size effects on above- and below-ground processes in a tropical wet forest. J. Ecol. 86: 597–609 [CrossRef]
  • Feller M.C., Lehmann R. and Olanski P., 2000. Influence of forest harvesting intensity on nutrient leaching through soil in Southwestern British Columbia. J. Sustain. For. 10: 241–247
  • Fettig C.J., Klepzig K.D., Billings R.F., Munson A.S., Nebeker T.E., Negron J.F. and Nowak J.T., 2007. The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forests of the western and southern United States. For. Ecol. Manage. 238: 24–53 [CrossRef]
  • Forkner R.E. and Marquis R.J., 2004. Uneven-aged and even-aged logging alter foliar phenolics of oak trees remaining in forested habitat matrix. For. Ecol. Manage. 199: 21–37 [CrossRef]
  • Franklin J.F., Spies T., Perry D., Harmon M. and McKee A., 1985. Modifying Douglas-Fir management regimes for nontimber objectives In: Oliver C.D., Hanley D.P., Johnson J.A. (Eds.), Conference on Douglas-fir: stand management for the future, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
  • Fuller T.L., Foster D.R., McLachlan T.S. and Drake N., 1998. Impact of human activity on regional forest composition and dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1: 76–95 [CrossRef]
  • Ganjegunte G.K., Condron L.M., Clinton P.W., Davis M.R. and Mahieu N., 2004. Decomposition and nutrient release from radiata pine (Pinus radiata) coarse woody debris. For. Ecol. Manage. 187: 197–211 [CrossRef]
  • Gilless J.K. and Buongiorno J., 2003. Decision Methods for Forest Resource Management, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • Grady K.C. and Hart S.C., 2006. Influences of thinning, prescribed burning, and wildfire on soil processes and properties in southwestern ponderosa pine forests: a retrospective study. For. Ecol. Manage. 234: 123–135 [CrossRef]
  • Griffin P.C. and Mills L.S., 2007. Precommercial thinning reduces snowshoe hare abundance in the short tenn. J. Wildl. Manage. 71: 559–564 [CrossRef]
  • Gundale M.J., DeLuca T.H., Fiedler C.E., Ramsey P.W., Harrington M.G. and Gannon J.E., 2005. Restoration treatments in a Montana ponderosa pine forest: effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. For. Ecol. Manage. 213: 25–38 [CrossRef]
  • Gundale M.J., Metlen K.L., Fiedler C.E. and DeLuca T.H., 2006. Nitrogen spatial heterogeneity influences diversity following restoration in a Ponderosa Pine Forest, Montana. Ecol. Appl. 16: 479–489 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gundersen P., Schmidt I.K. and Raulund-Rasmussen K., 2006. Leaching of nitrate from temperate forests – effects of air pollution and forest management. Environ. Rev. 14: 1–57 [CrossRef]
  • Hagar J., Howlin S. and Ganio L., 2004. Short-term response of songbirds to experimental thinning of young Douglas-fir forests in the Oregon Cascades. For. Ecol. Manage. 199: 333–347
  • Hart S.C., DeLuca T.H., Newman G.S., MacKenzie M.D. and Boyle S.I., 2005. Post-fire vegetative dynamics as drivers of microbial community structure and function in forest soils. For. Ecol. Manage. 220: 166–184 [CrossRef]
  • Hattenschwiler S. and Vitousek P.M., 2000. The role of polyphenols in terrestrial ecosystem nutrient cycling. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 238–243 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Heckenberger M.J., Kuikuro A., Kuikuro U.T., Russell J.C., Schmidt M., Fausto C. and Franchetto B., 2003. Amazonia 1492: Pristine forest or cultural parkland? Science 301: 1710–1714 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Hessl A., 2002. Aspen, elk, and fire: the effects of human institutions on ecosystem processes. Bioscience 52: 1011–1022 [CrossRef]
  • Hogg E.H., Br, t J.P. and Kochtubajda B., 2005. Factors affecting interannual variation in growth of western Canadian aspen forests during 1951–2000. Can. J. For. Res./Rev. Can. Rech. For. 35: 610–622 [CrossRef]
  • Jennings S.B., Brown N.D. and Sheil D., 1999. Assessing forest canopies and understorey illumination: canopy closure, canopy cover and other measures. Forestry 72: 59–73 [CrossRef]
  • Jonard M., Misson L. and Ponette Q., 2006. Long-term thinning effects on the forest floor and the foliar nutrient status of Norway spruce stands in the Belgian Ardennes. Can. J. For. Res./Rev. Can. Rech. For. 36: 2684–2695 [CrossRef]
  • Jones C.G. and Hartley S.E., 1999. A protein competition model of phenolic allocation. Oikos 86: 27–44 [CrossRef]
  • Kaye J.P. and Hart S.C., 1998. Ecological restoration alters nitrogen transformations in a ponderosa pine-bunchgrass ecosystem. Ecol. Appl. 8: 1052–1060
  • Knowles R.D., Pastor J. and Biesboer D.D., 2006. Increased soil nitrogen associated with dinitrogen-fixing, terricolous lichens of the genus Peltigera in northern Minnesota. Oikos 114: 37–48 [CrossRef]
  • Lajzerowicz C.C., Walters M.B., Krasowski M. and Massicotte H.B., 2004. Light and temperature differentially colimit subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce seedling growth in partial-cut subalpine forests. Can. J. For. Res. 34: 249–260 [CrossRef]
  • Lindgren P.M.F., Ransome D.B., Sullivan D.S. and Sullivan T.P., 2006. Plant community attributes 12 to 14 years following precommercial thinning in a young lodgepole pine forest. Can. J. For. Res./Rev. Can. Rech. For. 36: 48–61 [CrossRef]
  • Lindroth R.L. and Hwang S.Y., 1996. Diversity, redundancy, and multiplicity in chemical defense systems of aspen, In: Romeo J.T., Saunders J.A., Barbosa P. (Eds.), Phytochemical diversity and redundancy in ecological interactions, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 25–56.
  • Lorena C.A., Noe V.D., Victoria C.M., Beatriz B.M., Leticia S.C. and Julia M.M., 2005. Soil nitrogen in relation to quality and decomposability of plant litter in the Patagonian Monte Argentina. Plant Ecol. 181: 139–151 [CrossRef]
  • Maassen S., Fritze H. and Wirth S., 2006. Response of soil microbial biomass, activities, and community structure at a pine stand in northeastern Germany 5 years after thinning. Can. J. For. Res./Rev. Can. Rech. For. 36: 1427–1434 [CrossRef]
  • McCullough D.G., Werner R.A. and Neumann D., 1998. Fire and insects in northern and boreal forest ecosystems of North America. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 43: 107–127 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Moore B.D., Wallis I.R., Wood J.T. and Foley W.J., 2004. Foliar nutrition, site quality, and temperature influence foliar chemistry of tallowwood (Eucalyptus microcorys). Ecol. Monogr. 74: 553–568 [CrossRef]
  • Moran M.D., 2003. Arguments for rejecting the sequential Bonferroni in ecological studies Oikos 100: 403–405. [CrossRef]
  • Müller M.S., McWilliams S.R., Podlesak D., Donaldson J.R., Bothwell H.M. and Lindroth R.L., 2006. Tri-trophic effects of plant defenses: chickadees consume caterpillars based on host leaf chemistry. Oikos 114: 507–517 [CrossRef]
  • National Research Council, 2000. Environmental issues in Pacific northwest forest management, The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
  • Northup R.R., Dahlgren R.A. and McColl J.G., 1998. Polyphenols as regulators of plant-litter-soil interactions in northern California’s pygmy forest: a positive feedback? Biogeochemistry 42: 189–220 [CrossRef]
  • NRCS, 2006. Soil survey of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, National Resources Conservation Service.
  • Osier T.L. and Lindroth R.L, 2006. Genotype and environment determine allocation to and costs of resistance in quaking aspen Oecologia 148: 293–303. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Petritsch R., Hasenauer H. and Pietsch S.A., 2007. Incorporating forest growth response to thinning within biome-BGC. For. Ecol. Manage. 242: 324–336 [CrossRef]
  • Powers R.F., 1989. Retrospective studies in perspective: strengths and weaknesses. In: Dyck W.J., Mees C.A. (Eds.), Research Strategies for Long-term Site Productivity: Proceedings of the IEA/BE A3 Workshop Seattle, pp. 47–62.
  • Ranger J., Bonnaud P., Bouriaud O., Gelhaye D. and Picard J.F., 2008. Effects of the clear-cutting of a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation on chemical soil fertility. Ann. For. Sci. 65: 303. [EDP Sciences]
  • Ripple W.J. and Beschta R.L., 2007. Restoring Yellowstone’s aspen with wolves. Biol. Conserv. 138: 514–519 [CrossRef]
  • Schoennagel T., Veblen T.T. and Romme W.H., 2004. The interaction of fire, fuels, and climate across Rocky Mountain forests. Bioscience 54: 661–676 [CrossRef]
  • Sibold J.S., Veblen T.T. and Gonzalez M.E., 2006. Spatial and temporal variation in historic fire regimes in subalpine forests across the Colorado Front Range in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. J. Biogeogr. 33: 631–647 [CrossRef]
  • SPSS, 2005. SPSS 11.0 for Macintosh, SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL.
  • Stamp N., 2003. Out of the quagmire of plant defense hypotheses. Q. Rev. Biol. 78: 23–55 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Titus B.D., Prescott C.E., Maynard D.G., Mitchell A.K., Bradley R.L., Feller M.C., Beese W.J.B., Seely B.A., Benton R.A., Senyk J.P., Hawkins B.J. and Koppenaal R., 2006. Post-harvest nitrogen cycling in clearcut and alternative silvicultural systems in a montane forest in coastal British Columbia. For. Chron. 82: 844–859
  • Veblen T.T., Kitzberger T. and Donnegan J., 2000. Climatic and human influences on fire regimes in ponderosa pine forests in the Colorado Front Range. Ecol. Appl. 10: 1178–1195 [CrossRef]
  • Vellend M., Verheyen K., Flinn K.M., Jacquemyn H., Kolb A., Van Calster H., Peterken G., Graae B.J., Bellemare J., Honnay O., Brunet J., Wulf M., Gerhardt F. and Hermy M., 2007. Homogenization of forest plant communities and weakening of species-environment relationships via agricultural land use. J. Ecol. 95: 565–573 [CrossRef]
  • Wang J.R., Letchford T., Comeau P.G. and Coopersmith D., 2000. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting in a Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand. Scand. J. For. Res. 15: 611–620 [CrossRef]
  • Weinig C., Gravuer K.A., Kane N.C. and Schmitt J., 2004. Testing adaptive plasticity to UV: costs and benefits of stem elongation and light-induced phenolics. Evolution 58: 2645–2656 [PubMed]
  • Western Regional Climate Center, 2007. Western US climate historical summaries: Ruxton Park, CO.
  • Winkler R.D., Spittlehouse D.L. and Golding D.L., 2005. Measured differences in snow accumulation and melt among clearcut, juvenile, and mature forests in southern British Columbia. Hydrol. Process. 19: 51–62 [CrossRef]
  • Zenner E.K., Acker S.A. and Emmingham W.H., 1998. Growth reduction in harvest-age, coniferous forests with residual trees in the western central Cascade Range of Oregon. For. Ecol. Manage. 102: 75–88 [CrossRef]